The baby has a defect in the abdominal wall to
one side of the umbilical cord (usually the right side). Some of
the bowel has escaped through this hole and develops outside of
the baby's abdomen.
The bowel floats around in the amniotic fluid
in the Mother's womb for most of the pregnancy and sometimes the
fluid irritates the bowel and makes it inflamed and thick, so that
it does not work properly.
Sometimes the bowel becomes twisted as it
floats in the fluid and the blood supply is restricted . When the
baby is born the bowel is exposed to the air which sometimes causes
further inflammation to occur.